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These oracle-bone inscriptions were the early ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script and numerals.These examples indicate that early acts of literacy were closely tied to power and chiefly used for management practices, and probably less than 1% of the population was literate, as it was confined to a very small ruling elite.Ten years later, English Egyptologist Alan Gardiner reasoned that these letters contain an alphabet, as well as references to the Canaanite goddess Asherah. Albright deciphered the text using additional evidence that had been discovered subsequent to Goody's findings. Some of these inscriptions were mythological texts (written in an early Canaanite dialect) that consisted of a 32-letter cuneiform consonantal alphabet.This included a series of inscriptions from Ugarit, discovered in 1929 by French archaeologist Claude F. Another significant discovery was made in 1953 when three arrowheads were uncovered, each containing identical Canaanite inscriptions from twelfth century BCE.According to Frank Moore Cross, these inscriptions consisted of alphabetic signs that originated during the transitional development from pictographic script to a linear alphabet.

Script developed independently at least four times in human history in Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, lowland Mesoamerica, and China.

750 BCE) that used distinctive signs for consonants and vowels.

But Goody contests, "The importance of Greek culture of the subsequent history of Western Europe has led to an over-emphasis, by classicists and others, on the addition of specific vowel signs to the set of consonantal ones that had been developed earlier in Western Asia".

According to social anthropologist Jack Goody, there are two interpretations that regard the origin of the alphabet.

Many classical scholars, such as historian Ignace Gelb, credit the Ancient Greeks for creating the first alphabetic system (c.

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