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Sixty-four percent of minority youth indicated that they had experienced at least one vicarious discriminatory incident in the first year, with 69 percent the second year and 68 percent the third year. The most common direct discriminatory incident across the three years was “People have shown me a racist image online.” The most common vicarious discriminatory incident across the three waves was “I have witnessed people saying mean or rude things about another person’s ethnic group online.” Table 1: Percentage Perceiving Discriminatory Incident via the Internet at Least Once in the Past Year (2010-2013) We also found that reports of direct racial discrimination increased across the three time periods. The mixed-method explanatory sequential design includes online surveys, interviews, samples of online experiences provided by participants and observations from a school-based sample of diverse youth. The sample was recruited from schools in the Midwest with varying demographic compositions including relatively equal numbers of African-Americans, whites and Latinos as well as schools that were over 80 percent either Latino of African-American. Given the facts that 95 percent of youth have access to the internet (Madden, Lenhart, Duggan, Cortesi, & Gasser, 2013) and that adolescents of color spend 4½ more hours per day on average than their white counterparts using various forms of media, including mobile devices (Rideout, Lauricella, & Wartella, 2011), it is important to understand discriminatory experiences in electronic formats, including widely used social network sites. Early writings on the topic of race online argued that the internet could reduce or eliminate racial discrimination that people of color typically experience in offline settings (Glaser & Kahn, 2005; Kang, 2000). Online forms of racial discrimination also include what are commonly known as “cloaked sites” that are created to spread misinformation about the history and culture of certain racial/ethnic groups. One example is “martinlutherking.org” which was created to disparage Martin Luther King Jr. "2011 Digital Terrorism & Hate Report launched at Museum of Tolerance New York." Retrieved from
This was also the case for race (note there are mean differences, but these analyses included counts only). Like its offline counterpart, these experiences include racial epithets and unfair treatment by others due to a person’s racial or ethnic background, such as being excluded from an online space. Online racial discrimination and psychological adjustment among adolescents. These incidents may be directly experienced (also called individual experiences) by victims or may be vicariously experienced or witnessed (Tynes, Giang, Williams & Thompson, 2008). Recent theorizing suggests that social media often requires users to reveal their identities and that doing so can make individuals more susceptible to experiencing racial discrimination (Kahn, Spencer, & Glaser, 2013). In addition, victims may have a potentially permanent record of their online interactions (Palfrey & Gasser, 2008) that they carry around on their devices. Adolescence, race and ethnicity on the internet: A comparison of discourse in monitored and unmonitored chat rooms.