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The salafisation of Hui Muslims has affected nearly all sects, albeit in different ways.Amongst Salafis, the re-introduction of orthodox sources after a significant period of isolation, and amplified now by globalizing forces, led to the breakdown of the old Salafi community as a new generation of Salafis (the early graduates and pilgrims) in the 1980s sought to “correct” the errors of their elders. Une de nos Responsables Régionales prendra rapidement contact avec vous pour vous proposer un rendez-vous près de chez vous et devenir conseillère de beauté !本文系日本外交学者网The Diplomat于2014年10月23日发布的深度研究报道《Chinese Salafism and the Saudi Connection》作者:穆罕穆德·苏得里(Mohammed Al-Sudairi),译者:洪漫,译文来源:《参考资料》。Salafism, or Salafiyya, is a doctrinal-intellectual current within Islam that espouses a return to the ways of the Salaf As-Salih (the Pious Ancestors), the first three generations of Muslims who lived during and after the death of the Prophet Mohammed.His Salafi group encountered strong opposition from the established Yihewani clergy and their warlord backers, forcing the movement to assume a more cautious and quietest attitude towards politics for the sake of its survival.在1937年返回中国之后,马德宝成为这些教义的狂热信徒,迅速以甘肃临夏的一座清真寺为核心聚集了自己的追随者,随后脱离了伊赫瓦尼运动。他认为该运动已经损害了他们的信仰。他的萨拉菲集团遭到根深蒂固的伊赫瓦尼派神职人员及其军阀支持者的强烈反对,迫使该运动为了生存而对政治抱有更谨慎的态度。After the founding of the People’s Republic in 1949, the Salafis – now unfettered by the Muslim warlords – experienced a brief period of religious growth, with its leadership actively participating in a number of state organs as well as the newly created Islamic Association of China (IAC).This soon came to an end as the 1958 “Religious Reform Campaign,” followed by the Great Leap Forward (1958-1961) and the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), forced the movement underground as many of its leaders and adherents were killed off or sent to concentration camps.On one level, these influences have contributed – to a degree – to the salafisation (namely, a cultural and religious approximation of an “idealized” Saudi orthodoxy) of Hui Muslim society.

This occurred through various channels, the most important of which was the restoration of the Hajj missions in 1979 (after nearly a decade-long suspension dating from 1964) followed by new regulations allowing private individuals to make the pilgrimage in 1984, that allowed considerable numbers of Hui Muslims – jumping from nearly 2000 in 1985 to nearly 10,000 annually in 1990 – to travel to the Kingdom.It survived as remnants from the leadership settled in Xinjiang and Tibet during these difficult years.在中华人民共和国于1949年成立之后,萨拉菲派(现在不再受到穆斯林军阀的束缚)经历了短暂的宗教发展期,其领导层积极参与多个国家机构以及新成立的中国伊斯兰教协会(IAC)。Channels of Saudi Influence沙特影响力的渠道The start of the “Reform and Opening Up” in 1978 signaled the end of a dark period of sustained persecution against China’s Muslim communities, including the Salafis.The dismantlement of restrictions on religious worship, the restoration of mosques, and the reformation of the IAC served to reconsolidate state control over these communities but more significantly, served to showcase (in a resurrection of Chinese foreign policy patterns in the 1950s) Beijing’s tolerance of Islam, a policy principally aimed at courting the support of various Muslim states.Their activities, beyond providing alternative channels of communication between Saudi and Chinese officials, encompassed the construction of various Islamic Institutes, the renovation of major mosques, the initiation of a Quranic printing and distribution project (in 1987, more than a million copies were disbursed across China as a “royal gift” from the Saudi King), and the provision of training workshops for clerics and scholarships for students (initially in China and Pakistan,) amongst others.By the mid-1980s, religious policies were relaxed considerably, allowing for a growing number of Saudi private organizations and individuals (mainly preachers and missionaries bringing in religious literature) to increasingly work outside established IAC channels.

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